So, my last post looked at how anime has influenced live-action movies. This post, following that idea, extends to anime its forces on animated films. More specifically, how anime directs the direction of animated movies.
One of the major, and probably most obvious, shifts is in the animation style. I’ll use a simple example: the Disney princesses. To the unfamiliar, it is simply a collection of the Disney female protagonists. A chronological ordering of them is below:
Now, let’s consider a couple elements of anime art. First and most obvious is eye size and style. Anime is well known for its amazingly large eyes compared to the rest of the face. While the best known examples worldwide tend to break this habit (coughMiyazakicough), this is probably one of the most iconic aspects of the anime art form. Consider, for example, the general RPG rulebook Big Eyes, Small Mouth. It is a game designed to emulate anime and allow tabletop game players a route to role play the anime atmosphere. The fact that this game book even uses the definition of “big eyes” should be an indicator about how important famous this aspect of anime art is.
Random side note – It actually is kind of fun and recursive when there are rumours that the design of anime characters was influenced by the disproportionate eye size of cartoon character Betty Boop. But that’s a story for another day.
But why bring this up? Well, look at the “princesses” above. We can see a distinct shift in many of the characters drawn since 1989. You can see a major proportion change of the eyes. Considering the increased focus attention anime had since that time, it seems a possibility that this style in anime shifted to Western animated films like this Disney franchise. Of course, this is a jump of logic in that correlation equates to causation. and it is entirely possible that this is just pure and random coincidence. However, it does seem less likely when the shape of the eyes are also considered. Another distinct aspect of anime eyes is a reflection of light, often highlighted as a white dot.
What interest this brings is the correlation this causes with the animated characters above. You can see that this is distinctly visible reflection of a similar variety after the long jump in years. In fact, if you search the original frames of the human characters in Disney’s older animated films, you will find their pupils are fully shaded as oppose to having a slight reflection ala anime characters (again, images were grabbed with really quick Google searches).
I think this subtle shift reflects a major adjustment in the animation style, one that comes from the anime industry likely. There are countless examples of older anime from between this gap of time which show this distinction. I’ll just add an example below using Lupin III’s pilot from 1969. The best looks is probably around 6:44 or 6:45.
Of course, this again doesn’t prove absorption of animation style. I would suggest, however, that this is a fairly strong case and would warrant further consideration as a vector of communication between anime and English associated animated films.
Conversely, one strongly proven aspect of influence is in outsourced or co-produced works. This connection would seem obvious at first blush but it is worth mentioning since there are a large number of works which reflect this; there are some examples of animated films released in North America hiring Japanese animation studies for their work. No where is this more apparent in my mind than the animated rendition of The Hobbit. I’ve attached a short clip below. Though the title goes without saying (and seriously, did you NOT expect this to happen?), there are minor spoilers.
Now, what makes this truly interesting and a strong link to me is the studio which worked on this film. Much of the animation team later worked together in Studio Ghibli later. There was a strong working relationship between these animators and Rankin/Bass Productions. The animation of The Last Unicorn was done by the same group.
Another great example of this is the Transformers franchise, which had its iconic first season animated by Toei. Actually, a lot of Toei’s work can be place here period…most are television shows and would be subject to another post.
Of course, the influences aren’t purely limited to the visual. It’s important to recognize that, much like the film side, tropes are often carried over for historical reasons. I won’t rehash that discussion, and as such this post will feel short…but I don’t think it’s worth repeating (that and I’m dead tired right now).
Yeah…this post is short. I know that. I think a major aspect which limits the connection between the film side with anime is the focus of most anime on the episodic form. There are some influences on the movie industry but they are somewhat limited because the singular focus is on Miyazaki’s preferences…him being the singular popular figurehead of anime film.
The next topic, and probably the longest, will focus on how anime has influenced other animated television.